The State of Gwalior had established court in the line of British India and powers had been conferred upon the Magistrate to impose sentence and Civil Judges had been appointed to decide Civil cases. Judicial Work, both civil & criminal, was under the control of the District Judge posted in District. The system was different from other part of India which was under the control of the British. The District Magistrate was the head of the police in the District and was in-charge of Criminal cases, while the District Judge was dealing Civil matters only. The Darbar emphasized on the quick disposal of cases and serious concerned was expressed towards delay in the disposal of cases.
Since 1956 till January 1998 the District Court and the Bench of High Court together were housed in the same old building situated at Jayendraganj, Gwalior. In the said building on ground floor and in part of 1st floor, District court was accommodated and other part of 1st floor and 2nd floor, High court was accommodated. After January 1998 the District and Sessions Court Gwalior is the sole occupant of the building and High Court was shifted to the new building situated at City center. Presently new District Court building construction is going on between the new Collectorate building and High Court building.
The existing District court Building has its own glorious history. It was constructed in late Twenties for the establishment of educational institutions by the State.
Prior to 1936 the subordinate Court and the High Court of Gwalior State were housed in a building situated at a place which is known as Maharaj Bada. Part of that building has been demolished and other part in which court was running is presently known as central library, prior to that it was known as Imperial Bank of India.
During State time Gwalior Government had framed its policies for legislative and judicial department known as “Darbar Policy” for deciding the dispute between the parties, and for that purpose appointed agencies which were known as Adalats. For Civil case Civil Court and for Criminal cases, Criminal courts were established. The officers appointed in these courts were known as Judges.
The Rulers of the Gwalior State were delivering judgments regarding performance of judiciary and insured that there was no delay in imparting justice.
In Gwalior State the legal system was much ahead of its time law relating to security and property, subjects of ample magnitude having all essential features were legislated, which were not known to exist in any other system.
The marked feature of the State constitution was the separation of judicial from executive functions- a feature which was not achieved by British India. The credit for the inauguration of the said system goes to late Maharaj Madhav Rao, who in the year 1908 had succeeded in overhauling old machinery and had established independent system of judicial administration under which judicial functions were completely separate from executive.
Legislative and judicial department, “Huzur Darbar”, Gwalior legislated Gwalior Civil & Criminal courts regulation in Samvat 1989 i.e. year 1932 and under that various subject wise Courts were established.