According to Saharsa Gazetteer, 1965, Saharsa formed part of Bhagalpur District till 1954, Madhepura was a sub-division in the jurisdiction of Bhagalpur district then it came under jurisdiction of the historical background of criminal justice will be found in the re-written District Gazetteer of Bhagalpur. There is no sub-ordinate judgeship formed in Madhepura District, but one is in the offing. The civil and criminal courts of this place were still within the Bhagalpur judgeship till 1954, the authority to exercise general control over the civil court along with establishment as to inspect the proceedings of the court of Bhagalpur.
The civil court of this district sub-ordinate to the District Judge of Bhagalpur comprised of one permanent Munsif court at Madhepura. The civil courts at Madhepura had jurisdiction over the entire area of Saharsa and Madhepura till 1954.
The exact year when the Munsif Court started functioning could not be ascertained. It may be inferred that the court might have started functioning soon after 1845 when Madhepura sub-division was formed. It transpires from the perusal of old records that the court of Munsif was previously functioning at Kishanganj and the Lieutenant Governor Ordered the transfer of the Kishanganj Munsif court to Madhepura vide letter no. 3959, from the Secretary to Government of Bengal, dated Fort William, the 19th June, 1865. The Judge of Bhagalpur, vide his letter no. 287, dated Bhagalpur, the 23rd December 1865, addressed to the Commissioner, Bhagalpur, requested for sanctioning a sum of Rs. 150/- for the erection of a Kutchery house at Madhepura for the Munsif of Kishanganj.
The sub-ordinate judges court at Madhepura was created vide Government Notification No. J-45/43-312-JR, dated 11th October, 1944 and it started functioning with effect from 1st November, 1944 with its jurisdiction over the then Madhepura and Supaul sub-division, its jurisdiction was extended to Saharsa sub-division when it was formed in 1954.
It is relevant to mention here that as a result of Kosi flood, the Court of the Munsif of Madhepura was shifted to Supaul with effect from 5th June, 1934 vide notification no. 813-2C-4-JR, dated the 28th May, 1934. The office of the sub-divisional officer of Madhepura was also shifted to Supaul in the same year. The office of sub-divisional officer of Madhepura at Supaul and the Court of Munsif were shifted back to Madhepura with effect from 1st July, 1938 vide letter no. IIJ-I-4234-R, dated 2nd June, 1938. The office of the sub-divisional officer, Supaul was shifted to Saharsa in 1940 and came back to Supaul in 1944. According to the pressure of work an Additional Munsif was occasionally posted at Madhepura to clear up the pending cases.
Madhepura was raised to the status of a district on dated 09.05.1981. Judgeship started functioning with effect from 06.12.1986 which was inaugurated by the- then Hon'ble Chief Justice Mr. S.S.Sandhwalia under the Chairmanship of Hon'ble Justice Mr. Prabha Shankar Mishra. The first District & Sessions Judge of this judgeship was Sri Jaleshwar Nath Dwivedi. The new Civil Court building has been constructed on bye-pass road ( N.H. 107 )and it was inaugurated on 6th November, 2004 by Hon'ble Acting Chief Justice Mr. Nagendra Rai. The Judicial Courts are being held in the new building.