Thanjavur is known for Dispensation of justice from the period of Chozha dynasty, Manuneethi Chozhan and Sibi Chakaravarthi were the Popular kings for the Dispensation of Justice.
Originally, Thanjavur District court was constituted in the year of 1806 with Territorial jurisdiction of Thanjavur, Thiruvarur and Nagapattinam Districts. Charles Wood Cock was the first Zillah Judge taking charge in the year of 1807. Due to the increased judicial work, the District was divided in two Zillah Courts. One Zillah court constituted at Thramgampadi was named as Zillah court of East Thanjavur and the existing Zillah court was named as Zillah court of West Thanjavur.
The present District court building was constructed in the year of 1870 and Zillah court was named as District and Sessions court by ACT III of 1873.
This court became District Court of Thanjavur from the year of 1884. This court has celebrated the Bi centenary function in the year of 2007.
Thanjavur Principal District court is having 33 subordinate courts and 596 staffs under its control.